|This chapter deals with the Yoga of Meditation.
The first chapter described the dejection of Arjuna. In the second chapter Lord preached to Arjuna the Sankhya Yoga (spiritual knowledge) with a view to removing his dejection. The spiritual knowledge according to the Shrimadbhagawadgita, should be regarded as the knowledge of imperishability of soul and perishability of body.
When the intellect achieves stability through self-realization, then and only then is achieved the equanimity of mind. The equanimity of mind kills dual passions of pleasure and pain and dualism and the Absolute Supreme is attained Who removes all sufferings. But the perfect stability of intellect depends upon the attainment of Samadhi (i.e. metaphysical trance achieved at the climax of the practice of Yoga) or God-realized state (Gita 2/53). And the knowledge of the Self also becomes perfect in Samadhi only. In this kind of state, the practitioner of Samadhi secures the capacity of recognizing the Supreme. According to the Gita Chapter II, it becomes necessary to achieve the perfection of Samadhi through this special means.
The Shrimadbhagawadgita calls it better to achieve the fruit of perfection of Samadhi through the special means abiding with the proper performance of the duties of the world with a disinterested attitude. This is why the special and easiest means for attaining the so-called Samadhi has been described in the sixth chapter, having described Karmayaga, Jnankarmasanyasayoga and Karmasanyasayoga in the third, fourth and fifth chapters respectively.
The only particular method of attaining Samadhi is called Dhyana Yoga (The Yoga of Meditation). For this, mental meditation should be practised without renouncing worldly duties. One should practise the Yoga of Meditation being a householder, devoid of ego and the desire for the fruit of action. (That is, he should practise it with the spirit of a detached recluse living the life of a house-holder and a Karmayogi). This is the very teaching of Lord Sri Krishna in this chapter. ‘Karma’ (Action) is a means of becoming a yogi [both performing the duties of the world being detached to the fruit of action and practising meditation in a lonely place are ‘karma’ (Action)]. After attaining the perfection in yoga, the ‘Sama’ or the restraint upon mind becomes a means of ‘Karma’. It is quite impossible to be detached in actions and from the objects of senses without having attained ‘Sama’. When the so called attachment to and the thoughts of the world are renounced, then and only then a ‘Sadhaka’ (Student of Spirituality) is called as being firm in Yoga. This is not impossible and impracticable. As we spare time daily for the performance of the duties of the world, so we should spare time daily for practising meditation in solitude.
One should lift oneself up by one’s own efforts. He should not let his Self degenerate. He who has got victory over his mind is a friend to himself and he, who has not, is an enemy to himself. He who got a perfect control over his mind attains tranquility of mind and is constantly indifferent to cold and heat, pains and pleasures and honour and insult. He is a yogi who has got control over senses, perfect contentment with ‘Yama’, ‘Niyama’ and ‘Vijnana’ having realized the Ultimate State of the Absolute; and indifference to dust and gold and is blessed with the realized knowledge of God. He stands supreme among men who regard the well-wishers, foes and friends all alike. This kind of capacity requires a constant practice of yoga in solitude regularly and daily, keeping control over mind with reasoning power and giving up the attitude of collecting and storing more and more. The word ‘constant practice’ does not mean a twenty four-hour ceaseless meditation all the day and night leaving the other duties of the world for the whole life which is impossible. One cannot live without performing the inevitable daily duties such as responding to nature’s call, taking meals, sleeping, earning livelihoods etc. as we have to spare time daily for these duties, so we will have to spare time daily for the practice of yoga.
He, who says, "it does not require to spare time for practising meditation in a lonely place but the practice of karmayoga, keeping control over mind according to the indications made by the Gita and performing duties alone will bring the perfect steadfastness of mind and liberation," and says further, "The present time is not worth for practising yoga." — I may humbly make a request to him that he, however great, must be in error. If he is fully aware of the state of Samadhi (God-realization), ‘Asthitaprajnataa’ (stable-mindedness) and ‘Siddhaavasthaa’ (state of liberation), he is propagating wrong ideas in the country for any selfish motive of his own and, even though called a well-wisher, he only harms the country spiritually or he must not be fully aware of ‘Samadhi’ ‘Asthitaprajnataa’ and ‘Siddhavasthaa’.
Lord Sri Krishna has already stated in chapter II, "Stable-mindedness will be attained in the state of Samadhi and then the equanimity of mind will be attained." (Sloka-53), The perfection in the Yoga of Action cannot be attained by other means than attainment of stable-mindedness and equanimity of mind. That is why, action (that is, action in the form of practising meditation and of properly performing duties of the world ), according to sloka 3 of the present chapter, becomes the means and after becoming a perfect yogi (that is, after attainment of ultimate success in the practice of yoga ) or attaining the state of liberation; ‘Sama’ (complete control over mind ) becomes the means of Karma (Action). For achieving ultimate perfection in such kind of yoga, the practice of yoga in solitude has been suggested in sloka 10. Lord Sri Krishna Himself practised yoga in solitude.
In Shrimadbhagawat, skandh 10, Chapter 70, Slok 4, it has been written as—
Lord Krishna used to get up daily in the ‘Brahmamuhurta’ (i.e. about three hours prior to sun-rise in the morning ) and after having washed His face and feet, meditate upon His spiritual Self-existence and feel supreme ecstasy within Himself.
Lord Krishna is the first preceptor of the teachings of the Gita. This is not the fact that he imparted these teachings to Pandava Arjuna alone. He had first imparted them to Vivaswana (sun-god) prior to His present birth and that of Arjuna (sloka I, chapter IV). It is evident from the slokas 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 of Chapter III that Lord Krishna is of the opinion that people imitate the conduct adopted by great men and follow the path made standard by them. Although Lord Krishna had nothing to do in all the three worlds nor anything was unavailable for Him yet He engaged Himself in duties for ever for the abovesaid reasons so that people might imitate and follow Him. Otherwise, all the worlds will be destroyed and He Himself will become responsible for this universal chaos and destruction of humanity. That is why Lord Krishna Himself practised the Yoga of Meditation daily and regularly, otherwise He did not need this for Himself. The Gita also tells about its method in this chapter. Even then, if one (whosoever he may be) avoids it and disobeys the injunctions of Lord Krishna, he is not worth accepting for his views.
Even successful and great karmayogins like Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi took it as essential to practise meditation in solitude. Sri Tilak observes, "The real existence of the Supreme should be so realized that one should experience the one Supreme in all beings and enable oneself to behave with the same stable nature at the time of emergency (but a little learning as of mine is not quite sufficient for this), it needs the pre-earned spiritual impressions of many pervious births; control over senses, constant effort and meditation and devotion inevitably." (— extracted from Gita Rahasya, Adhyatma Prakaran, Page 247).]
Mahatma Gandhi says in the sloka 69 of chapter II in his commentary of ‘Anasakti Yoga’ — "The sensual people waste their time up to 12 and 1 O’clock at night in the sensual merriments like sensual activities, eating, drinking and dancing and sleep until 7 to 8 O’clock in the morning where as a yogi goes to bed early at 7 or 8 O’clock of night and getting up at midnight practises meditation of God. In addition, a sensual man forgets God and increases intrigues in the world while a yogi realizes God, remaining unaware of the intrigues of the world". These quotations affirm that a karmayogin, however great he might be, must practise meditation daily regularly and constantly for the whole life. Vyasadeoji (a great sant and a poet) in his voluminous epic ‘the Mahabharata’ of which the Srimadbhagawadgita is a fragment but very important part of the ‘Bhisma Parva’, says in chapter 67 of its ‘Shanti Parva’— ‘Yoga’ should be practised three times a day viz, in Brahmamuhurta (about three hours prior to sun-rise), midday and evening. As the wisher of pots saves them, so practitioner of concentration of mind should fix the entire sphere of senses in the secret place of the ‘heart-louts’ and let not the heart fear yoga. [this has been also named as ‘Yoga-hridaya’ (yoga-heart)], 'Kanja-kamala',and 'Shunya-mandala of Aajnaa-chakra' ( the secret space present in the centre of modularly ) in Bharati (Hindi) Sant's saying.]. He is a vigilant yogi who adopts the means which exercises the control over mind and becomes constant being firm in it.
"Even Shudra (lower castes) and devout women can attain the Ultimate State by means of ever-peace-giving yoga, But women and Shudras have also right to practise such kind of yoga." A wise and learned man can positively understand that there must be identity of precepts in the Shrimadbhagawadgita and the Mahabharata. Now, is described the method of yoga or the practice of meditation in this chapter of the Shrimadbhagawadgita. A sacred small carpet should be laid according to one's means at a sacred and solitary spot. The place should be neither very high nor very low, but plain. There, one should sit in a constant and firm posture, keeping the head, neck and trunk straight and steady. The yogi should sit and meditate the Supreme, having fixed his eyesights on 'Nasikaagra' (the secret spot ahead the nose known to a true spiritual preceptor only), without seeing any direction and resolved to keep the vows of continence (Brahmacharya). Keeping the head, neck and trunk straight and steady will keep the spinal chord straight and steady. This kind of sitting-posture will cause the respiration go slow, which in turn, will lessen the fickleness of mind. It is helpful and beneficial in the practice of Yoga of Meditation but it is necessary that the eyesights should be kept fixed on the secret spot ahead nose (Nasaagra). Such kind of sitting-posture of the devout yogi to practise meditation will undoubtedly end the fickleness of mind. How can it be possible to accept the above said ideas for him who has love and devotion to God for show only and not actually by faith, who at the same time, dislikes to spare his time for practising such kind of meditation sitting in solitude and advising others to do likewise. It is again not possible for such a man to practise for himself and advise others accepting the above described ideas about the attainment of the supreme, stablemindedness and of becoming a perfect Karmayogi. He has only to practise the so-called Karmayoga (the Yoga of Action) without the practise of Dhyana Yoga (the Yoga of Meditation). The Shrimadbhagawadgita does not recommend that the attainment of stable-mindedness and of the perfection in Karmayoga is possible without practising the Yoga of Meditation. Indeed, it is good to practise according to the Gita, both Karmayoga and Dhyana Yoga. Do not abandon the practice either of Karmayoga or Dhyana Yoga. This alone is the best method for the attainment of the Supreme, Salvation and for performing, according to the time, one's duties of the world. An aspirant of salvation has to do both simultaneously: the worldly duties and meditation- for, one cannot live in the world without performing the worldly duties. It is absolutely essential to perform worldly duties according as described in the Gita, keeping mind under control.
According to the capacities and demands of time and place, some take responsibilities upon themselves to serve spiritually or materially or both materially and spiritually and while maintaining them and practising yoga for salvation, have led or lead or will lead their lives. All such people will be regarded as Karmayogins. If one claims that he alone is a Karmayogi and others are neither Karmayogins nor practise Karamayoga, this claim of his is only boastful and he is an egoist and in fact, he is not at all a Karmayogi. He only gives airs of himself as a Karmayogi but in reality is not a 'Mumukshu' (an aspirant of salvation, a real practitioner of yoga). One devoid of the attributes of a 'mumukshu' cannot attain perfection in Karmayoga.
Such a gentleman wants that he should be followed by people abandoning their faith, for the good of the country otherwise the country will go to rack and ruin. This desire of his is improper.
So long as the spiritual status of a country is not raised, the moral standard of the people in the country will be neither high nor good. And so long as the moral standard is not high, the code of social conduct will not be good and conducive to peace. The bad code of social conduct will not enable the body-politic to run administration peacefully and the country will remain under turmoil and unrest.
Ignoring these facts, any endeavor to bring peace to the country by taking resort to distribution of land and property will be doomed to failure. It will indeed be rational to distribute land and wealth among the people only after raising their moral standard high by uplifting them spiritually, teaching them lessons in truthfulness, contentment and non-violence and removing their wants and poverty by giving them land and wealth, the obtainment of land and property alone can never bring in peace to those who keep themselves away from truthfulness, contentment and non-violence and are devoid of morality and spirituality. There can be no measure to measure the contentment of the people devoid of these ethical values, how so much land and wealth may be given to them. Goswami Tulsi das has rightly said in his 'Vinaya patrika'—
"The poor are destined to suffer but the wealthy too never attain peace, for both are painful, because if wealth robs peace like a ghost, poverty burns like fire-such is envisaged in the sacred texts."
It is never possible to bring in peace only by taking wealth away from one and giving it away to others without disseminating in both classes (poor and rich) the lessons of truthfulness, contentment and non-violence and associating them with these virtues. Since our country is now independent, why has there been necessity for one to take away wealth from the other and give away to the third? Why does he put in so much labour for this? If both classes of people would have possessed the said virtues, the so-called gentleman could not have had to labour so much. Both classes of people (rich and poor) have lived peacefully naturally by mutually helping one another. The following good teaching of Goswami Tulsi das should be accepted with deep faith and never be forgotten —
"Can passion be killed without contentment? Can one with passion get happiness even in dream? Can there be any lack of passion without devotion to Lord Rama i.e. the Supreme? Can plants be rooted in anything but soil?"
Several very good teachings have been given in the second chapter of the Shrimadbhagawadgita about achieving stability of intellect through the yoga of Samadhi (the state of metaphysical trance) and attaining equanimity of mind and stable-mindedness in the Self through self-contentment and regarding equanimity of mind as yoga. The Gita does not teach that equanimity of mind and contentment can be found by appropriating wealth by any means. According to the Gita, a perfect Karmayogi is a stable-minded man having realized the equanimity of mind. The state of stable-mindedness is to be achieved through the practice of Samadhi. This is why, considering it as essential, the easiest method of practising to attain Samadhi has been suggested in this chapter. This method enjoins upon fixing eyesights on 'Nasikaagra' (the secret spot ahead nose). By 'Nasikaagra' Mahatma Gandhi means the space in between the two eyebrows. (see the footnotes of the sloka-13,14,chapter 6 of the 'Anasakti Yoga' of Mahatma Gandhi.) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak has suggested the tip of the nose as 'Nasikaagra' (Its true secret is to be learnt from a good spiritual practitioner or a perfect spiritual preceptor for it is known to the spiritual preceptor alone) Chapter 1 of the Shandilyopanishad has also referred to seeing on 'Nasikaagra' as —
"The wise should taste the nectar of ecstasy fixing eyes on the secret spot ahead nose and seeing the reflection of the esoteric inner moon in place between the two eyebrows and keeping the head and neck straight and steady. The respiration gets stopped when the knowledge-eye (consciousness-force) gets still and steadfast in the inner open space ahead nose at a distance of twelve-fingers (one cubic) from 'Nasaagra'." This has been described as the 'Saamabhavi mudraa' (the posture of Lord Shiva) or 'Drishti-yoga' (the Yoga by Eyesight) in the 'Brahman' II of the Mandala Brahmanopanishad, it is written,
"There are three ways to see it, such as 'Amaawasyaa', 'Pratipadaa' and 'Purnimaa'. 'Amaadrishti' implies seeing with closed eyes, 'Pratipadaa' seeing with half-closed eyes and 'Purnimaa' with wide open eyes. Their point of concentration should be 'Nasaagra'. Its practice brings stillness of mind which causes the stoppage of respiration.
Some forbid practising 'Amaadrishti' (with closed eyes). They argue that the practice with closed eyes induces sleep and hold it in contempt and say, "closing eyes is in the nature of a white duck". But my humble request to them is that meditation through Amaadrishti is much easier and more harmless. To practise with eyes fully or half-opened must cause strain in the eyes. So it cannot be said to be either easy or harmless. However, those who like to practise them may do so but they should not hold to practise through Amaadrishti in contempt and forbid others to practise it. From seeing the meditative posture of Lord Buddha's statues, it is clear that he used to practise meditation with closed eyes. The Srimadbhagawata says that king Parikshita had garlanded the dead snake around the neck of sage Shamika who was seated in meditation with eyes closed (askandha-1, chapter-18, and sloka 25-39).
In their saying, the Sants like Kabir Sahab, Guru Nanak Shab and Paltu Sahab have approved of practising with closed eyes.
"The bed of eye-pupil was unfolded in the room of eye where the devotee won lover lord by dropping off the curtains of eye-lids.
After closing eyes, ears and mouth and unifying the two pupils of eyes, enjoy the pleasant scene and hear the inner music.
Mortals stick to their own reason remaining unaware of the mystery of 'Sadguru' (a perfect spiritual preceptor with realized Supreme). But the Sadguru turning their course brings them to the ocean of Bliss in order to save them from sinking into the sea of mundane world. Further he turns the direction of their eyesights from outward and unveils the curtain of gross body (that is, he leads to the Sphere of Light from the Sphere of Darkness). Therefore Sant Kabir Sahab is of the opinion that there is none comparable to Sadguru in the world". — Sayings of Sant Kabir Sahab
"Close all the three-eyes, ears and mouth and hear the sweet note of the inner sound. Sant Guru Nanak says that there is neither evening nor morning in 'Shunya Samadhi' (i.e. Subtle Sphere of Inner light)". — sayings of Sant Guru Nanak Sahab
"The secret tenth door opens if meditation is practised with closed eyes."
— sayings of Sant Paltu Sahab
"On seeing inward with the eyes closed, O, see, there is neither sun nor day nor night."
— sayings of Sant Yari Sahab.
In course of describing 'Sahaja Samadhi' Sant Kabir Sahab has in the last lines of a verse, said —
"I do not close my eyes and ears nor feel any pain. I smile and constantly watch, with open eyes the Supreme beauty of the Lord."
This state can be attained only after the attainment of 'Sahaja Samadhi' (God-realized state which comes at the long run as a natural consequence on the completion of practices required). But so long as the 'Sahaja Samadhi' is not attained, the recipe of not closing eyes and ears will not be helpful. As Sant Kabir Sahab has instructed, it is inevitable at the beginning of practice to close eyes and ears.
At the end of practice, 'Sahaja Samadhi' will be attained and then it will not at all be necessary to close eyes and ears. But Sant Kabir Sahab does not speak of not closing eyes and ears at the beginning of practice.
In the Gita, Lord Sri Krishna commands to see on 'Nasikaagra' without seeing in any direction. Here, it is to be considered if closing the eyes will be necessary for not seeing in any direction or not? There are ten directions in all viz, four straight directions, four their corners and one upward and one downward direction. Seeing with open eyes will surely lead to seeing one of the ten directions. But if seen with closed eyes leaving out worldly thoughts, none of the directions will come into the focus of seeing.
There must be pain in eyes in seeing either on the space between the two eyebrows or on the tip of the nose. Or, if seen mentally with closed eyes on the so-called spots, the mental forms of those spots will be seen. Whatever portions of those spots will be seen, must assume more or less a fragment of proportion. And, if seen mentally the image of the idol of one's worship on those spots, there will remain the measures of the idol. Thus, if mind and sight are made to stay on any quantity of measure, the upward motion of Samadhi will not be obtained. This requires a thorough concentration on a 'Bindu' (point). The Meditation of one-pointedness is the supreme meditation, (The meditation of the radiant 'point', the soul of the universe, living in the yoga-heart, is the name of the Supreme meditation.— extracted from Tejobindupanishad.)
The Srimadbhagawadgita points subtler than subtle from of God.
In Gita Chapter VIII, sloka 9, the word 'Anoraniyam' indicates the form, subtler than the subtle, of God.
In sloka 122 of Chapter 12 in the Manusmriti, this very subtlest form is 'Bindu' (point).
"That Supreme Bing is worth-knowable Who governs all, Who is subtler than the subtle, radiant like gold and attainable by wisdom as that of dream."
According to the known definition, 'Bindu' (point) cannot be formed mentally or in imagination. It can be observed vividly through the secret art devised for it. Chapter 14 of askandha 11 in the Shrimadbhagawata describes the practice of this meditation of one-pointedness or the meditation of point calling 'Shunyadhyana' (meditation of void) in a serial order in following slokas—
"Withdrawing through the mind their senses from the objects, the wise, applying their wisdom should absorb that mind in Me along with all My limbs (42).
Without thinking of other limbs, when the diverted mind is fixed only on My smiling face, then it should be shifted from there and fixed on the 'point'. Subsequently that too should be left aside in preference to firm concentration in My pure Self-existence without thinking of anything else (43 44)."
The saying of the Upanishads and sants also bear testimony to this kind of meditation.
"The absolute point alone is the seed-letter (the mother of all forms) and above this exists the Divine Sound. When the Divine Sound merges into the Imperishable then the soundless (wordless) Absolute state of the Supreme is realized." — extracted from Dhyanabindupanishad, sloke 2.
"Faith of all proceeds from 'Meditation of the void'.
Take aim at the secret spot of the sky.
See in between the sun on the right side and moon on the left side.
The light inflames in the Centre of the Sphere of sky.
Whosoever likes to realize the Unqualified Supreme, must first fix the eyesights on the Secret point (Til).
I have seen the divine pearl which exists in the innermost depth of the pupil of the eye; known to the rare sage. (— said by Sant Kabir Sahab).
Enters and marches in the inner sky. Bathes in the Triveni (the meeting place of the main three nerves viz, Ira, Pingala and Sushumna, i.e. the place in between the two eyebrows). Sits in the sky, such is the sage udasi (recluse) as sayeth Nanak.
Absolutely devoid of illusion, fear, attachment is the 'Shunya Samadhi' to be attained by the grace of God.
Enters in the subtle sky when the secret tenth door opens, hears the roaring sounds which exist in the 'point'. This state is ever pleasing all the day and night as sayeth Paltu Sahab.
Stable is the consciousness-force in the Secret window of point ('Til' or medullary) and stays there day in and day out. (— said by Sant Tulsi Sahab).
(The words "Til Khidaki"say of 'Drishti Yoga', — the meditation of point or the yoga of vision by eyesight).
Now, having been aware of all these about 'Nasaagra' and 'Bindu' (point) or 'Anoraniyam' (the form, subtler than the subtle of God). 'Samadhi' too should be known.
The gist of teachings of the Gita is to realize the Supreme and attain salvation through Karmayoga (the yoga of action). In the opinion of several seers as well as Srimadbhagwadgita, the Karmayogi should be stable-minded (Asthi prajna). And the stable-mindedness is attained in the state of Samadhi. It is therefore necessary to know what is, after all, Samadhi. The ultimate stage of the practice of yoga is called Samadhi [the yoga has eight parts-stages,namely, (i) Yama (ii) Niyama (iii) Aasana (iv) Praanaayaama (v) pratyaahara (vi) Dhaaranaa (vii) Dhyana and (viii) Samadhi ].
A fully successful spiritual practitioner of Samadhi is a perfect yogi. The following stages of Samadhi have been described in Muktikopanishad—
"When I am-ness dissolves and the consciousness exists absorbed in the Absolute , it is called as Samprajnaat Samadhi (the state of such concentration of mind in which the soul does not thoroughly know itself). This from of Samadhi can be achieved only after practising exceedingly (53). When all activities of mind will be lost, it will be called Asamprajnaat Samadhi. It is much liked by the yogins (54). The ' Atadbyaawritti Samadhi' (at which stage there does not exist any requirements of (dependence upon) others in which the conscious soul exists without any association of light, mind and intellect; is what is liked by the sages absorbed in Samadhi (55). In this kind of Samadhi the Bliss of the Absolute Supreme is experienced everywhere; above, below and the middle of the two. This, as stated above, is metaphysical Samadhi (56).
In these stages of Samadhi there does not remain any consciousness of the outer side world.
"Then he does not any longer hear the sound of conch-shell ( Shankha) or trumpet. Attainment of this state of Unmuni (the state where the activities of the mind are lost) certainly makes his body insensitive like wood. He becomes quite insensitive to cold and heat, pains and pleasures. The consciousness-force of such a Yogi transcends, becoming devoid of sensitiveness to all respect and disrespect, all the three stages (waking, dreaming and sleeping). He attains the Self-existence being freed from the waking and sleeping stages. 52-54.
When anyone reaches these stages in the practice of Samadhi then only he will have the right to be called a Samadhi then only he will have the right to be called a great soul absorbed in Samadhi (i.e. a Sant). There is no doubt at all about it that such kind of a great soul will be stable-minded and a perfect Karmayogi. It is rational to practise together Dhyana yoga (the Yoga of Meditation) to attain Samadhi and Karmayoga (the Yoga of Action) to become a perfect Karmayogi. Following perfection in Dhyana yoga, the practitioner will be perfect in Karmayoga. A man devoid of Samadhi can never attain stable-mindedness and a Karmayogi will remain immature and imperfect without it (i.e. stable-mindedness).
Some believe in 'Karma Samadhi' (the Samadhi of Action). They are of the view that outer duties of the world should be performed with such an absorbed mind that it may not run after other thoughts of the world. But in such kind of 'Karma Samadhi' the release from the waking stage will not be possible. But, on the other hand, the spiritual practitioner will be devoid of the sensations of the outer world in the 'Turiya' and 'Turiyateeta' (transcendental and supra-transcendental) stages in the aforesaid 'Samadhies'.
The mind and intellect cannot be stayed for long on only one object while performing duties of various kinds. Hence, a constant practice of one and one element will not be possible and without it the passion for the objects of senses will never cease. The Samadhi will not be achieved without cessation of the passion for the objects of the senses.
In Muktikopnishad, — "So long as the mind has not been brought under full control, the ego of 'Chitta' should be annihilated completely and the enemy in the form of senses won through the constant practice of one and only one element. This alone will cause the decay of passion for the enjoyment of senses as winter does to the lotus. Thus 'Karma samadhi' cannot be taken for granted as the real Samadhi in which stable-mindedness as described in the Gita is achieved. Those who support the described 'Karma samadhi' regard their own practice of Karma Samadhi as 'Vikarma' (special action). But neither the real Samadhi can be attained nor freedom from the bondage of action through their practice of this 'Vikarma'. The bondage of action can be destroyed in the real Samadhi only. Therefore, it cannot be believed that the state of 'Akarma' (actionlessness) can be achieved through their practice of this 'Vikarma'. Since chapter IV describes 'Vikarma', it is not required here to write anything about it. An immature Karmayogi cannot attain salvation and the Supreme. If these supreme ends are not to be achieved — will it be improper to describe such kind of Karmayoga as—
"The yoga is a bad yoga and knowledge in fact no knowledge which lacks the dominance of devotion to Lord Rama (the Supreme). How can it be supposed that he is blessed with the love and devotion to Rama who ha no love for holy realization of the Supreme in Samadhi? It is wrong to regard some mental image as realization of the Supreme. Here, again, I remind the readers that the equanimity of intellect is achieved in the state of stable-mindedness and according to Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak it inevitably requires meditation and devotion (Gita Rahasya, Page-247).
If meditation is taken as the indulgence of mind in mental remembrance of some concrete images, then it is an imperfect knowledge. It has already been written about 'Shunya dhyana' (meditation of void) and 'Bindu dhyana'. Some more for a detailed knowledge is being attempted here —
"Common meditation is not really meditation, for mind reached in void is meditation. It is beyond doubt that eternal happiness and salvation are attained only through the love for this kind of meditation." — extracted from Jnaanasankalini Tantra.
It has been written about the spiritual practice of Sri Kagabhusundiji in the 'Uttara kanda' of the Ramayana of Tulsidas—
"Sri Kagabhusundiji practised 'Dhyana' (meditation) under the 'Peepul tree' (the holy fig tree), chanted 'Japa' of holy mantra (muttering of holy words) under the 'Pakara tree'; exercised Manasa puja (remembrance of some holy figure to meditate over) under the mango tree and had nothing to do except worshipping God."
'Manasa Puja' (mental worship) and 'Dhyana' (meditation) have been treated as different activities. No one will dispute that application of mind to some concrete mental images is 'Manasa Puja'. This is also a kind of meditation but since the meditation as practised by Sri Kagabhusundiji was different, then there must be some meditation with different chapter. The meditation in void (Shunya dhyana) described in Srimadbhagawata must be quite different from this mental worship. Mind gets into 'Void' through this very practise and it is also the name of 'Bindu-dhyana' (Meditation of Point). This has already been described before. The measureless and invisible spot is called as 'point' (Bindu). Therefore, 'Shunya-dhyana' (Meditation of Void) and 'Bindu-dhyana' (Meditation of point) are one and the same thing. Self-realization, devotion to God, stable-mindedness (Asthitprajnataa), Samadhi (the climax of metaphysical trance, i.e. God-realized state), the yoga of equanimity of mind, the yoga of Action (Karmayoga) and the yoga of meditation (Dhyana yoga) are the essence of the Srimadbhagawadgita. This is why, these topics have been described at places in detail and will further be described as required in order to give a clear exposition of them. After illustrating the method of Dhyana-yoga to Pandava Arjuna, Lord Sri Krishna told him the following in addition.
One who regulates oneself through the practice of meditation attains the Ultimate Peace of the Supreme unifying oneself with the Supreme. He does never succeed in Yoga, who either eats much or fasts, or sleeps much or too little. The Yoga is a crusher of miseries for those whose diet, sleeping, walking and other actions are quite balanced and regulated. The mind of a Dhyana-Yogi (meditative soul who practises this kind of yoga) absorbs itself in the Self being indifferent to desires as the flames of light burns unflickered in a place sheltered from wind. This yoga is practicable without being impatient.
The mind should be repeatedly concentrated to practise unceasingly and also do 'Pratyahara' by restraining it from where it runs to. Thus the mind will be brought under control and be steadfast. The practitioner will attain the unlimited Absolute Happiness of the Supreme and attain the equanimity of mind, In the Self-vision, he will directly, not intellectually, see or experience all embodied in himself and himself embodied in all beings, and the Supreme present in all beings ad all beings present in the Supreme. He will see God for ever and since God sees all, how he will remain invisible to Him.
That devout yogi having achieved the equanimity of mind lives ever in the closeness of the Supreme, seeing all beings as himself and performing duties of the world disinterestedly. Although control over mind is very difficult for its being too active and invincible, yet it can be controlled through 'Vairagya' (dispassion) and 'Abhyasa' (practice of meditation). A man who has faith in and respect for 'Dhyana-yoga' but is weak in practice, does not come to the degeneration of his soul, on the contrary, the least of practice he does, will enable him first to enjoy happiness of the haven and then to take birth in some upright wealthy family or even-minded yogi and inspired by the impressions of the spiritual practices of previous births, he will indulge in the practice of 'Dhyana yoga'. He will proceed further on the path of salvation and will achieve the Ultimate state (salvation) having purged himself completely of all sins through the strength of spiritual practices (devotion) earned after several births.
It has been said difficult to get birth in family of a wise Yogi. The reason for this lies in the fact that one can be fit for being born in the family of a yogi and attain Absolute salvation after being perfect in the practice of yoga only when he has first made himself deserving by means of long sincere practice and perfection in it absorbing himself mostly there in, and helped by the impressions of several previous births in the family of upright wealthy persons. Even the slightest practice of it saves beings from she 'Great Fear' (come to degeneration of soul i.e. to take birth in other creatures than human) and the greatness of it lies in the great fact that even its 'Jijnasu' (aspirant) transcends the Nada Brahma (the Sound-Brahma), (so long as one is not perfect in the practice of yoga, he remains an aspirant only). This Sound-Brahma is the seed of creation. This only originates from the Supreme in the beginning of the Creation. So it is called as Adi Nada (Sound in the beginning), Adi Nama (Name in the beginning, Sant Kabir Sahab expressed as Adi Nama is like the Philosopher's stone and the mind like dirty iron. Iron changes into gold when touched with the Philosopher's stone, so the mind becomes pure being freed from bondage of attachment to the world when connected with Adi Nama.) and 'Adi Shabda' (Wsord in the beginning, In the Holy Bible, St. John, it has been cited: "Word was in the beginning. Word was with God and Word was God."). Only after transcending it (Sound-Brahma), one is able to cross the great ocean of Maya (illusion).
It has been described in detail in all of the four parts of the "Satsang-Yoga" (a book (written by His holiness Maharshi Mehi Paramhansa) has a compilation of the sayings of various Sants from the vaidic age up to the modern age and its fourth part defines 'Santmat' (Sants' Faith) on the ground of these sayings, along with the corresponding spiritual experiences of the writer.) Only a hymn from chapter-2 of the Varahopanishad is given here for example—
"One desirous of the empire of Yoga, should search for the Divine sound with vigilance and renunciation of all cares."
The essence of Dhyana-yoga is 'Naadaanusandhaana' (the Yoga of searching for the Divine Sound) which leads one to the climax of spiritual practice. The Yogi is superior to the ascetics, scholar of sacred texts (intellectual scholar or imperfect practitioner of Dhyana-yoga) and followers of rituals. And among the Yogis, the Yogi attended with devotion to God is superior. As such, people should prefer becoming devout Yogi.