|This chapter treats ‘The Yoga of Action’ and ‘The Yoga of Renunciation’ as complementary to each other.
One who has no malice and desires nothing should be regarded as a ‘Sanyasi’ (renouncer). One who is beyond the dual passions of pain and pleasure, should be regarded as freed from bondage. Such kind of man is a perfect renouncer, gradually practising according as described in chapter IV, he will be a perfect renouncer in the long run even if he leads the life of a house-holder or that of a recluse. As the dirt comes out of the body, so the desires naturally arise in mind. One cannot be devoid of desires without crossing the sphrere of mind by the practice of yoga. The sphere of mind has the limit up to —
As Sant Dariya Sahab, Madwadi indicated in His verse —
"Mind, intellect, ‘chitta’ and ego have the reach up to ‘Trikuti’ (a secret place above medullary experienced by a yogi) beyond which lies the sphere of sound."
Reason can restrain desires for a short while, not for ever. If the practice of meditation is carried along with the effort of restraining desires through reason, the ‘Surat’ (consciousness-force or individual soul) gets upward motion and crosses the sphere of mind. Then the mind together with desires will lose their existence. What a nice statement has been given by Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak in his ‘Gita Rahasya’ in ‘Adhyatma Prakarana’ about the equanimity of mind —
"A stable nature to behave with even-mindedness even at the time of emergency should be had but (a literal learning like that of mine is not sufficient for this) this requires the pre-earned spiritual influences of several births of past lives, control over senses, constant effort and the full support of meditation and practice."
The ignorant regard Knowledge and Yoga as two different things in their ignorance. Indeed both are one and the same. One cannot afford salvation without the other.
In Yogasikhopanishad, It has been written —
Knowledge devoid of Yoga cannot be capable of giving salvation.
As the initial capital of indirect (intellectual) spiritual knowledge earned by hearing, contemplation and study of the sacred texts is essential for the devotees following the Path of Knowledge, so it is essential for the devotees too, following the Path of Yoga. At the same time ‘Pranayam’ (exercise of restraining breath) alongwith the practice of meditation or the practice of meditation alone is most essential to reach the perfection for both of them. In lack of this, both of them will remain lame and imperfect. If they call themselves as the followers of the Path of Knowledge and Yoga but avoid the means described above will merely be tall boasters and keep themselves away from reality.
Goswami Tulsi Das has told —
"Even an expert in literal learning cannot cross the river of Maayaa (illusion) as a mere talk of the lamp cannot dispel the darkness of the house."
Sant Surdas says —
"As the necessary equipments for a lamp like oil, cotton, fire etc. alone can not light the lamp (unless it is lit) so merely a big and bare talk of lamp cannot remove darkness."
‘Sanyasa Yoga’ (The Yoga of Renunciation) must inevitably be accompanied with the concept of ‘Karma Yoga’ (The Yoga of Action) for he must abide even with the slightest in the form of hoard which will have to be dealth with according to the principles of the Yoga of Action. A karmayogi will have to perform duties of the world in the midst of his several hoardings and duties, keeping his heart a full renouncer. Thus, somehow or other, ction can be renounced through the Yoga of Action only. The non-doer in action first practicing the means as meditation etc. and being free from the desires of the fruit of action will attain even-mindedness. Such kind of contemplative soul will attain salvation in no time. Such kind of yogi is the seer of truth. He is unattached to the actions maid by mind, speech and body. As the lotus is unattached to the water, so the sin can not touch him. All his actions at the period of spiritual practice being as the purifier of soul are offered to the Absolute. Such kind of a yogi after becoming the renouncer of the fruit of action and being firm in the equanimity of mind, attains Absolute Peace. But one, who is not a yogi, remains laid in bondage. Thus a yogi living in the city of body with nine holes (two of eyes, two of ears, two of nose, one of urination and one of anus), mentally restrained, remains a non-doer even though engaged in performing duties. His mind is not attached to the fruit of action. It is so because he attains the perfect or realized knowledge of the Self. He is now an enjoyer of the Brahmic Bliss (the bliss in the state of Absolute) getting himself above the sensual pleasures. He completely subdues his mind. Why will he then indulge in passions causing pains and pleasures? But it is impossible to have such kind of indifferent state of the mind only through the intellectual power without reaching the state described above.
The Absolute Brahma is realized through the self-illumined sunlike knowledge which emerges after the destruction of ignorance by self-realization. That is, the Supreme is possible to be realized only through the individual soul. Such a seer will have his sins washed away. He lives ever established in the liberated state and in identity with Him and being a devotee of His sees Him present in every object. He becomes indifferent to all in the world, worldly objects and high and low living creatures. As if, he has got victory over the world. As he is absolutely absorbed in Brahma, he treats himself as spotless Brahma. Remaining disinterested in the outer objects of senses and devoid of worldly pains and pleasures, such a Brahma – realized devotee enjoys the inner happiness and unceasing Bliss of the Supreme. Such kind of life-liberated devotee having attained the inner light and being free from the impurities like lust and anger etc. reaches freedom of the State of the Absolute. A wise or discriminate does not indulge in the joys caused by the senses thinking them as the mother of all troubles and as transitory.
Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmachary (continence) and Aparigraha (not hoarding more than necessary); these five are called ‘Yama’. Purity of mind and body, contentment, penance, study of sacred texts and worship of the Divine; these five are called ‘Niyama’. That contemplative soul engaged at all times in the practices for attaining salvation; is ever liberated who, maintaining the laws of ‘Yama’ and ‘Niyama’ have equalized the ‘Prana’ and ‘Apana’ breaths (upward and downward breaths) and being devoid of lust, fear and anger, has controlled mind and intellect and while keeping his eyesights fixed on the secret space between the two eyebrows, he attains Absolute Peace recognizing the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities, disinterested friend of all beings and the Supreme Lord (Krishna) of all the universe.
Some practitioners equalize their Prana and Apana breaths through the practices of Puraka and Kumbhaka. But the practice is not free from danger. On the other hand, the practice of Drishti-Yoga (the Yoga by eye-sight) or keeping the eyesights on the secret space between the two eyebrows alone, stops respiration as a natural consequence, of getting the so-called breaths equalized even without the support of above practices of Pranayam (breath-control). This practice is free from any danger. The correct and good method of this practice is indeed worth learning and practising accordingly, otherwise a wrong method can harm the eyes. ‘Eyesight’ means the vision, the look or the power to see, not the eye-ball or the pupil of the eye. Such kind of practice brings the mind and the eyesight to one-pointedness and the perfect concentration of the mind. Though this kind of concentration, streams of consciousness are concentrated and as a natural consequence of concentration, mind and consciousness goes upward and all — equanimity of mind, stability of intellect, the perfection of Knowledge or the perfection of Yoga of Action, Self-realization, holy presence of the Attractive or Lord Shri Krishna and the attainment of the Absolute State of the Brahma are completely dependent on this upward lift.